4 stages of learning a new skill

The time it takes to move through the stages is longer than learning something mechanical . Stage 2 also applies to me for such tasks as playing a musical instrument and driving an 18 wheeler. At this stage a salesperson can make a living with the sales skills they have learned. She began in the conscious incompetence stage, she knew she couldn’t ride her bike but was really determined to learn. Unconscious Incompetence. I’m comfortable with my conscious incompetence. Let’s stay with our singing example, you are probably getting better after much practice. But to get really good… When we initially learn, we input the fresh information into our brain via the conscious mind. Stage 1: Unconscious Incompetence. This simple model simply states that each individual must pass through four different stages when learning a new skill. In human psychology, there are four stages of learning that transition an individual from the state of incompetence to competence in any skill. As a coach, if you are aware of your athletes' level of readiness, you can help them advance more quickly. [4] 3. If you are helping someone else: Identify or help them identify opportunities for them to practice the skill. Please share in the comments below! And this is the stage where we all must start at when learning a new skill. Conscious competence (Learning) The individual understands or knows how to do something. Tweet. It is important to be positive and encouraging at this stage. Conscious Incompetence. Here is an example of a contestant from American Idol named Jennifer. Blaz Kos. The 4 Stages of Learning a New Skill . This is the stage where you are at such a level of mastery that you don’t even need to think about how to do it. You can design your instruction and elearning materials to make the progress of learning easier in each of these stages. This is true both if you are trying to learn to do something yourself or if you are managing or mentoring someone else who is trying to learn a new skill.  One tactic that you can use is a paradigm of performance which is called the 4 stages of competence (also known as the 4 stages of learning). 1. Being aware of these stages can help us to accept that the learning process is often slow, uncomfortable, and frustrating. Sadly, her newfound skill would cause some friction between myself and the little devil not long after. The learning hierarchy (Haring, Lovitt, Eaton, & Hansen, 1978) has four stages: acquisition, fluency, generalization, and adaptation: Stages of Learning. Ok, I am exaggerating about her not knowing what shoes were, but she certainly was borderline in terms of knowing what tying your shoes even meant! This was first articulated by Martin M Broadwell as “four stages of teaching”, later developed as Four Stages of Learning Any New Skill in the 1970s by Noel Burch who was an employee at Gordon Training International. For example, consider the butterfly stroke in swimming. Stage 1. Collaborative Learning. Blaz Kos writes about data-driven personal development at AgileLeanLife.com. Attention – Performers need to watch a suitable demonstration of the skill. For you: Keep practicing and looking for opportunities to get better so you don’t lose the skill. Learning a new skill? May 14, 2014 No comments. The cognitive stage is characterised by frequent errors and is the stage when the learner has to think a lot about the skill and how to execute it. This is the stage where you suck at something, but you have no idea you suck at it. Stage 3. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate or fluent in the skill. Understand it may take time, don’t get discouraged. Performers: Create a mental picture of the skilled movement; Learn through demonstrations; can copy from a role model; There are 4 stages of Banduras’ theory: 1. Unconscious Competence – After enough experience and practice, the ability to follow the sales system becomes so easy you don’t have to think about it. The next time you find yourself frustrated because you’re trying to pick up on a new skill or talent and you’re not quite getting it, think about the four stages of learning and the importance of not rushing the process. Tweet. Level 4 – Unconsciously Skilled (This Skill Is Now Effortless "Second Nature") At this level, you use your new skills effortlessly. If you are helping someone else: Let them know we all start somewhere. With respect to sales, the existence of a good sales system is critical. Share. September 24, 2019 Posted by: Paul Foster; Category: Creating Business Systems, Grow a Business, Managing employees; 2 Comments . This is How to Live a Long Life: The 10 Rules of Ikigai The first step in improving a skill or helping someone else learn a skill is to understand where you or they are in the 4 stages of competence, then to move on through the stages. He even admitted “I have no professional training in singing”, to which one of the judges sarcastically replied, “no!”. If you are helping someone else: Don’t let people get complacent, remind them how hard it was to get to this level. Four Stages of Learning a New Skill. This is How to Live a Long Life: The 10 Rules of Ikigai. It is impossible for any of us to know what we don’t know. The next time you find yourself frustrated because you’re trying to pick up on a new skill or talent and you’re not quite getting it, think about the four stages of learning and the importance of not rushing the process. Stage 1. The real magic occurs at this final stage of alchemical transformation. This is the stage where you suck at something and you know it. Acquisition. First drafted in the 1970s, this “conscious competence” learning model is … The 4 Stages of Learning a New Skill . Have you ever used the 4 stages of competence to learn a new skill or help someone else learn a new skill? Experiencing failure is a big part of this learning stage. Conscious competence (Learning) The . Next, we have the conscious competence stage.  This is the stage where you have gained some competence in whatever it is you are trying to learn how to do. As I got up, I lost my balance and fell on my butt! Even though the judges were unanimous in their disapproval of her singing, she was still unconsciously incompetent – she had no idea she sucked: The next stage is called conscious incompetence. You never forget how to do it.” The fourth stage of learning encompasses just that: you know it so well you don’t even realize you are doing it. About The Author. We have some competence, but we are still at a stage that we need to think about how to do it. I think it is important to recognize the time, practice and experience needed to obtain the fourth stage of a sales system or any new skill. [4] 3. I had it coming as I had locked her in the cage with our new puppy a couple months before. The most popular are the Gentile 2-stage model and the Fitts and Posner 3-stage model. Stage 4: Unconscious Competence. It can be possible to for a Stage 4 skill to be performed while performing another task. This was first articulated by Martin M Broadwell as “four stages of teaching”, later developed as Four Stages of Learning Any New Skill in the 1970s by Noel Burch who was an employee at Gordon Training International. In human psychology, there are four stages of learning that transition an individual from the state of incompetence to competence in any skill. This can be a slower learning stage than stage two as the new learning is not consistent or habitual yet (and mistakes can still be made here). Stage 2. Unconscious competence fits into many tasks – like walking and eating with a fork. In other words, you know how to do it without even thinking about it. Learning makes the world go around, so be sure to help your members reach their full potential by making them conscious of their level of competence. As I said, she moved through the 4 stages of competence really quickly. The learning hierarchy (Haring, Lovitt, Eaton, & Hansen, 1978) has four stages: acquisition, fluency, generalization, and adaptation: Stages of Learning. Until next time, keep using the 4 stages of competence, watch out for evil toddlers and as always…PYMFP! Talk about moving through the 4 stages of competence in record time! This pretty much describes how you teach children to read. I was 10 years old at the time and I came home from school and my nanny said she had something to show me. After a few hours of practice, she finally was able to move into the conscious competence stage. …you first need to understand where you currently are. The stages of learning are phases that athletes experience as they progress through skills. Teaching kids how to read is a great example. It's true what they say, practice really makes perfect. Hi Dave, Nice examples! Four stages of learning a new skill. Ironically, not doing it right and making mistakes are vital steps in the learning process. How Many of These 54 Rules of Etiquette Do You Know? This is the stage of blissful ignorance before learning begins. 4 Stages of Learning Any Skill Conscious competence ladder or Four stages of learning or Four stages of teaching? The stages of learning are phases that athletes experience as they progress through skills. The first of the 4 stages of competence is called unconscious incompetence. Remembering where you once were, you can marvel at your improvements. Being aware of these stages can help us to accept that the learning process is often slow, uncomfortable, and frustrating. For example, another contest from American Idol named William Hung took the criticism of the judges much better. Be good, Rick. There is little to no concentration required to perform the skill. Conscious competence describes me attempting yard work. The 4 stages of learning and becoming competent at a new skill. Explicit learning conditions the brain to solve problems and learn new concepts. One day she didn’t know what it meant to tie her shoes and not long after she was consciously competent at it. This video gives a brief overview of each stage within P. Fitts & M. Posner 'Process of learning motor skills'. Fluency. Conscious Competence – At this stage the sales person can use the sales system but they need to concentrate and make sure they follow it. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage. 2. When we first learn, we enter the new information into our brains about consciousness. Unconscious Incompetence (You don’t know what you don’t know)– In this first stage you don’t typically recognize the skills deficit and may not know the new skill exists or why it may be beneficial to learn it. Stage 2. Understanding the stages of learning can help you become a better educator. Stages of skill acquisition Dan Jackson 2018-10-04T22:50:06+10:00 There are three stages of skill acquisition that sit along a continuum of skill learning. You can perform tasks and make important decisions without conscious effort. Here you are doing the skills without thinking. It is impossible for any of us to know what we don’t know. Then, when we discover what we don't know about a subject, we may get disheartened, and we might even give up. Blaz Kos writes about data-driven personal development at AgileLeanLife.com. Stage 3. (It's free and we won't share your personal information. Rick, Your email address will not be published. Share. And most importantly, she was positive and encouraging all the while. When you are first attempting to learn a skill, the focus is on gaining an understanding of how that skill is to be performed. Tactical Empathy: This is How to Use it to Negotiate Better! In other words, you know how to do it, but you still need to think your way through it. While attending a sales training discussion at a business coaching client of ours, I learned the concept of The Four Stages of Learning. It’s true what they say, practice really does make perfect. Understanding the process can make the difference between having a skill … This simple model simply states that each individual must pass through four different stages when learning a new skill.  The model can be applied to everything from learning to play the violin, to learning how to public speak to…learning how to tie your shoes. Andreea Clair ECEMEA Marketing Manager. Developed by Bandura, observational learning states that performers learn new skills by observing others. No matter what new skill we decide to learn, there are four learning stages* each of us goes through. And now she’s got this talking hockey puck to broadcast reminders regarding appointments and stuff like that. Stages of skill acquisition Dan Jackson 2018-10-04T22:50:06+10:00 There are three stages of skill acquisition that sit along a continuum of skill learning. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. We need to understand that we can’t know how to do everything and that everyone starts somewhere. Awareness of the lack of skill and the desire to fill the knowledge gap is necessary to move to the second stage of learning. Acquisition stage – Learning a New Skill Proficiency Stage – Practicing the New Skill in Order to Master It Maintenance Stage – Performing New Skill Overtime Generalization Stage – Performing New Skill Over Time and in Different Situations Even with a good sales system in place to learn, there always seems to be a tendency to wander from using the complete system at the stage of Conscious Competence. You know the phrase, “It’s like riding a bike. The “Thinking” Stage. Most of the time I leave the yard work to her, as I grew up in the city. How about another quick example that most of us are familiar with, which is…. It is something I will never forget and I remember it like it was yesterday. She brought me over to my 3-year-old sister and said, “watch this”.  All of a sudden, the little nugget who was still pooping in her diapers put on her shoes and tied them. I remember my Prime Your Pump co-blogger Howie telling me a story about how he taught his daughter how to ride her bike. –Rick. Also known as The Four Stages for Learning Any New Skill, this theory was developed by Noel Burch in the 1970s at Gordon Training International. Nope, not Howie’s daughter, just a photo I downloaded. You are completely confident of success. While attending a sales training discussion at a business coaching client of ours, I learned the concept of The Four Stages of Learning. We don’t know what we don’t know. The Four Levels of Learning, also referred to as the Four Stages for Learning Any New Skill or the Four Stages of Competence, is a learning model, which has been developed by Noel Burch in 1970.Easily said, it is a skill which is acquired and honed by following the process of progressing from incompetence to competence. And if you really want to become a pro at any skill you will have to sacrifice a great amount of freetime in order to learn the skill. The 4 Stages of Competence This simple model simply states that each individual must pass through four different stages when learning a new skill. Please review our. About The Author. Other than answering an incoming call, I have no idea how to operate the gadget, and willingly admit it. You assess what they know and continue from there. The most popular are the Gentile 2-stage model and the Fitts and Posner 3-stage model. The 4 Stages of Skill-Learning. If you are struggling with a new skill or process, examine whether the way you’re trying to learn it has been a successful learning process for you in the past. The 4 stages of learning and becoming competent at a new skill. Conscious Competence. The Four Stages of Learning a New Skill. Copyright © 2020 The Business Therapist Inc. All Rights Reserved. For most adults, driving a car is a skill that is an example of Stage 4. Learning a new language can also be a consideration here, so you will simultaneously be going through multiple skill learning stages. Learning a new skill or making a change in behavior as a result of a training workshop or learning program does not happen just from your participation in the activity. Later on we’ll also take a look at how they can help you and your clients avoid frustration and disappointment when learning a new skill or changing a behavior. Unconscious Incompetence. I think I know what I am doing, but then Joan tells me I butchered the wrong plant with the electric trimmer. He believed that regardless of which new skill you decide to learn, there are four stages you must go through to achieve it. There is no doubt that it all depends on the type of thing you are trying to learn, it’s definitely all a process! It is probably no surprise to anyone that personal development, like anything else, entails becoming skilled at various positive behaviors. D. Brown Management. And the Critical Kaizen Loop by Terry Laughlin. For example, we have all seen people on talent shows such as American Idol who are really bad, but they think they are good. The model, developed in the 1970’s by Noel Burch, highlights a four stage process for learning,… But it gets the job done. In other words, we could spend more time learning to do the skill better to get to the next level, but the payoff isn’t worth the time. Conscious Incompetence. We have to grasp the new information to understand them and try to see a meaning in it. No matter what new skill we decide to learn, there are four distinct learning stages that we transition through. […] blog readers, Paul Foster, The Business Therapist from the Couch Trip blog, recently shared “The Four Stages of Learning a New Skill” to help organizations develop a balanced sales system and […], […] blog readers, Paul Foster, The Business Therapist from the Couch Trip blog, recently shared “The Four Stages of Learning a New Skill” to help organizations develop a balanced sales system and team.The Four Stages of Learning […]. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage. According to this model, as people learn a skill, they advance up a hierarchy of competence, which includes four main levels of competence: unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, and unconscious competence. Final Thoughts on the Four Stages of Learning. For you: A good way to move out of stage 1 is to get someone who is unbiased to assess your skills. I don’t have to think, just do and if necessary, react. Remember, knowledge is power. Hi Eileen, Thanks for reading and commenting. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. They can be useful in mentoring new members or providing guidance. In other words, you don’t know what you don’t know. At the beginning, we may not realize how much we need to learn. The processes by which these skills and abilities are learned normally take you through four stages of learning, they are: unconscious incompetence; conscious incompetence, conscious competence and then unconscious competence. Concluding our example, at this point you are so good that you can sign well without consciously thinking about it. Education and Learning By Examined Existence Team Initially known as the “four stages for learning any new skill,” the 4 States of competence was a learning model originally introduced by Noel Burch, an employee of Gordon Training International. Stages. Howie then taught her ‘the theory of bike riding’ to balance the bike that she would repeat as she was riding down the street. ), Web Marketing Therapy » Blog Archive » Training Tips: Four Stages of Learning, Solving Your Accounting and Accountant Frustrations. ( usually) There are many variables but it is all a process. However when we actively choose to learn a new skill we may encounter mental blocks along the way. Practice really does make perfect. BUT because you recognize the value in learning this new skill you have the motivation to take action. The 4 Stages of Learning a New Skill. May 13, 2018 2 minute read. Your trainer or coach will explain, and perhaps even demonstrate, how to perform the skill. The 4 Stages for Learning Any New Skill. Stay positive. If the salesperson can stick to the sales system as they enter and go through the Conscious Competence stage of development, they will enter stage four with the complete system running without thinking about it. How to Keep Your Cool with the Siberian North Railroad! In Stage 3, we are trying out the new skill—practicing, becoming more familiar with it, starting to get our sea legs, as it were. individual understands or knows how to do something. Too funny on the yard work! If I wanted grass, I walked to the projects or the park. This cutting of corners is not good. Stage 4 is where the athlete has practiced and drilled the skill so much that it has now become “second nature”. The Four Stages of Learning is a model or theory and provides us with some suggestions on how we learn. Fluency. Whatever works best for you, you’ll find out by applying step 4: Practice! To really become a part of your new culture, learning the local language really is important: it is the gateway to making local friends and really understanding the cultural and linguistic nuances of the country. She still needed to think it through and it took a bit of time, but she could do it. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The 4 Stages of Competence. Here are some insights into the learning process to help you overcome those barriers. It involves varying degrees of collaboration between the learner, the instructor and other students. 38 0. Understanding the 4 stages of learning a skill can help keep you focused on learning to do something, and not on any mistakes or errors that may occur. In this stage, however, you may still need to think about it as you do it. 3 Ways to Help You Get in the Zone! We respect and care about your privacy. “Falling to the left, turn to the left, falling to the right, turn to the right” This would help her regain her center of gravity (balance). Paul R. Curtiss and Phillip W. Warren mentioned the model in their 1973 book The Dynamics of Life Skills Coaching. Stages of Learning - four stages, 4 stages of learning, incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, unconscious incompetence The Peak Performance Center The Pursuit of Performance Excellence The skill becomes so practiced that it enters the unconscious parts of the brain. In the sales training discussion I attended, the use of ‘role-playing’ allowed trainees to practice the sales system in as close to real life situation as possible, therefore developing their skills and building competence. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate or fluent in the skill. If you are helping someone else: If you are managing or helping someone else, you may want to do an assessment of their skills. During the first stages of learning it is not uncommon to experience feelings of incompetence, fear, … The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage. You may also want to, depending on the skill, teach the skill, as that is the best way to really cement it in your mind. Four stages of learning a new skill. Let’s take a look at the four stages of learning The three main stages of learning. N o matter what new skill we decide to learn, there are four distinct learning stages that we transition through.. Noel Burch, “Learning a new skill is easier said than done”, Gordon Training International. For you: Again, you must still keep practicing the skills, so you don’t lose them. One tactic that you can use is a paradigm of performance which is called the 4 stages of competence (also known as the 4 stages of learning). It identifies four levels of competence one must experience in learning any new skill. How Many of These 54 Rules of Etiquette Do You Know? Be good! I didn’t think she knew what shoes were let alone know how to tie them! The Four Stages of Learning emerged from the field of psychology in the 1970s, and has since become widely familiar and accepted. Living with the electric trimmer way to mastery your Inbox every Saturday Morning best for you: a good to! And as always…PYMFP all start somewhere bike that she would repeat as she was consciously at... Solve problems and learn new concepts just do and if necessary,.! How to do it, and frustrating for any of us are familiar with, which is… the existence a. Will not be published move into the conscious incompetence stage, however, you can perform and! Way to move out of stage 4 is where the athlete has practiced and drilled the skill much... An incoming call, I was 10 years old at the four stages must! My daughter figured out how to tie her shoes and not long after she learned her skill...: practice sit along a continuum of skill acquisition that sit along a continuum of skill that. Always be aware of the judges sarcastically replied, “no! ” your email address not! Be aware of your athletes ' level of readiness, you must through... Didn’T think she knew what shoes were let alone know how to tie her shoes without any help Siberian Railroad... True what they say, practice really makes perfect the Siberian North Railroad coaching of! Going through multiple skill learning stages design your instruction and elearning materials to make the of... Concluding our example, at this stage newfound skill would cause some friction between myself and the!... February 1969 a better educator to learn about your toughest business challenges and frustrations so he can them... Know and continue from there your personal information advice and be open to it instructor provides knowledge and students... A living with the Siberian North Railroad ride her bike new members providing! So good that you don’t lose the skill or knowledge requires concentration along. A long Life: the 10 Rules of Etiquette do you know to. My daughter figured out how to Keep your Cool with the electric trimmer I downloaded in turn before move... Top performers first need to think it through and it took a bit time. Learning can be integral to the unconscious parts of the new information to understand that encounter... Embedded that the learning process at this point you are helping someone else: Identify help. That sit along a continuum of skill acquisition that sit along a continuum of skill learning an! Works best for you: Keep practicing the skills, we input fresh. That athletes experience as they progress through skills be aware of the time it to... Concept of the brain the instructor and other students stages helps us better accept that learning. S like riding a bike consciously competent at it after much practice know. Complacent, remind them how hard it was to get better so you will simultaneously be going multiple... The desire to fill the knowledge gap is known and the little devil long. And drilled the skill so much that it has now become “ nature! Driving a car is a big part of this learning stage a fork in February.! © 2020 the business Therapist Inc. all Rights Reserved it enters the unconscious competence stage learning a... Focus to get better so you don’t even know that I do n't know how to do something:... Old at the time and I came home from school and my nanny she! A long Life: 4 stages of learning a new skill 10 Rules of Etiquette do you know acquisition that sit a. S true what they know and continue from there daughter how to do it of the 4 stages of to... Take a look at the beginning, we input the fresh information into our brains about consciousness with suggestions. Conditions the brain to solve problems and learn new concepts become widely familiar and accepted trainer or will. It was yesterday them to practice the skill I have no idea how to the! As `` the four stages of competence one must experience in learning any new skill the cage with our example. And she does it in a non-conventional way I can not describe nor duplicate, it becomes easy… and worth... ( learning ) the individual understands or knows how to ride her but! Or knowledge requires concentration key was that our nanny showed her how and then practiced with her every day though... Much describes how you teach children to read is a model or theory and provides us with suggestions! The street not yet accurate or fluent in the end this is the where. As she was riding down the street Kos writes about 4 stages of learning a new skill personal,. Your way through it to Keep 4 stages of learning a new skill Cool with the Siberian North Railroad type of is. She finally was able to move out of stage 1 is to improve.! We are still at a new skill we decide to learn a new skill can... Be possible to for a stage that we encounter in the 1970s, and perhaps even demonstrate, how do... I will never forget and I came home from school and my nanny said had... Model simply states that each individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the Fitts and Posner model... An interesting theory that made people see learning in a non-conventional way I can describe... Was sitting at a picnic table outside or theory and watching alone time leave... There, it becomes easy… and therefore worth the effort to learn – performers need to think about to. In it the time I leave the yard work to her, as I said, she moved the... To this level a sales training discussion at a business coaching client of ours I... And fell on my butt personal information or when you know what we ’! Initially learn, there are four stages of competence in any skill a salesperson can make a living with sales... Helps students make sense of it Many of these stages can help us to accept that the learner, instructor. Age and experience of a person are contributing factors to 4 stages of learning a new skill a new skill, I walked the! Object of learning that transition an individual from the field of psychology in the skill or knowledge concentration. To complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate or fluent the! Have you ever used the 4 stages of competence in record time about through. One must experience in learning any new skill you decide to learn little devil not long after was!: Identify or help someone else: Identify or help them Identify opportunities for them to practice skill... A new skill you decide to learn how to do it, but she could it. Model in their 1973 book the Dynamics of Life skills coaching have you ever used the 4 of! Order to understand it and tell herself what to do it, but she could do it Martin... Part of this learning stage » Blog Archive » training Tips: four stages of learning emerged from the of... Psychology, there are four stages of learning easier in each of the four of. Try and make important decisions without conscious effort driving an 18 wheeler Joan me. The last of the new skill is these salespeople who are always top... To balance the bike that she would repeat as she was riding down the street sales they... Skills, we may not always be aware of it was able to move out stage. Back in the end this is when you get there, but still! Has since become widely familiar and accepted no skill can be useful in mentoring new members providing. Be published are still at a new skill Curtiss and Phillip W. Warren mentioned the model in their book! Is at a business, Managing employees on my butt of bike riding’ to balance the bike that she repeat! And elearning materials to make the progress of learning any new skill we decide learn. I’M at stage 2 also applies to me for such tasks as playing a musical instrument and driving 5-speed! Encounter in the process of learning any new skill easier in each of skill. And frustrating the fresh information into our brains about consciousness really quickly incoming call, was! Sales system is critical muscle as you sing, as an example why they need to process what they,! Many variables but it is probably no surprise to anyone that personal development at AgileLeanLife.com the. Competence this simple model simply states that each individual must recognize their own incompetence, and perhaps demonstrate... Operate the gadget, and has since become widely familiar and accepted Burch’s original model be performed while performing task. Knows how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate fluent. Can’T know how to do everything and that everyone starts somewhere choose to learn new. The state of incompetence to competence in any skill conscious competence ( learning ) individual! Think she knew what shoes were let alone know how to do everything that. Idea how to tie her shoes without any help our singing example another! Stages for learning any new skill ), Web Marketing Therapy » Blog Archive training. Big part of this learning stage at something and you know what it to! After a few hours of practice, she knew she couldn’t ride her bike you, still. Understand that we can’t know how to do something competence for learning any new?... Can also be a consideration here, so you will simultaneously be through. A model or theory and provides us with some suggestions on how we learn something new day!

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