Adcock, Frank E., The Greek and Macedonian Art of War, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1962. Arithmos (GR): number; military unit. Dipèchiakè (GR): space of 2 cubits separating two tholepins in a file of oarsmen, probably some 98cm. Latin magister equitum, a senior late Roman commander. Drepanèphoros (GR): scythed chariot. Telamoon (GR): carrying strap. The Hoplites would lock their shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers would project their spears out over the first rank of shields. Although alliances between city-states were commonplace, the scale of this league was a novelty, and the first time that the Greeks had united in such a way to face an external threat. At least in the Archaic Period, the fragmentary nature of Ancient Greece, with many competing city-states, increased the frequency of conflict, but conversely limited the scale of warfare. Ilarchès (GR): wing commander; cavalry officer. Sphagia (GR): pre-battle sacrifice. Agoogè (GR): Spartan upbringing. Casualties were slight compared to later battles, amounting to anywhere between 5 and 15% for the winning and losing sides respectively, but the slain often included the most prominent citizens and generals who led from the front. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. Lazenby, John F., "Hoplite Warfare," in John Hackett, (ed. The Athenian dominated Delian League of cities and islands extirpated Persian garrisons from Macedon and Thrace, before eventually freeing the Ionian cities from Persian rule. Porpax (GR): arm-band of a shield. Sekunda, Nick, Warrior 27: Greek Hoplite 480–323 BC, Oxford: Osprey, 2000. Athens had little choice but to surrender; and was stripped of her city walls, overseas possessions and navy. Epi dory klinai (GR): face to the spear-side; right-face. The origins of the hoplite are obscure, and no small matter of contention amongst historians. Sèmeiophoros (GR): standard-bearer. Sphendonètès (GR): slinger. (Mnemosyne, Supplements 409). Akontistès (GR): javelineer. Systasis (GR): light infantry platoon. Koilè phalanx (GR): concave battle-formation. Lakedaimoon (GR): name of Spartan state. Pharsalikè ilè (GR): elite Thessalian cavalry unit from Pharsalia.  Battles rarely lasted more than an hour. Campaigns were often timed with the agricultural season to impact the enemies or enemies' crops and harvest. Kyrtè phalanx (GR): convex battle-order. The second major challenge Sparta faced was fatal to its hegemony, and even to its position as a first-rate power in Greece. Ekdromos (GR): 'out runner'; hoplite leaving the phalanx (GR) formation to chase light troops. However, a united Greek army of c. 40,000 hoplites decisively defeated Mardonius at the Battle of Plataea, effectively ending the invasion. As the Thebans were joined by many erstwhile Spartan allies, the Spartans were powerless to resist this invasion.  When battles occurred, they were usually set piece and intended to be decisive. Melas zoomos (GR): black soup; infamous Spartan blood broth. It was a period of political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific achievements that formed a legacy with unparalleled influence on Western civilization. Hekatontarchia (GR): unit of hundred; military unit; company. Mistharchidès (GR): mercenary. However, such were the losses of Theban manpower, including Epaminondas himself, that Thebes was thereafter unable to sustain its hegemony. Eparchos (GR): officer. Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. Anax (GR): king. 'Hoplite' can be translated as 'man-at-arms'. The Spartans did not feel strong enough to impose their will on a shattered Athens. Ancient Greek military power. Agora - The agora was the central meeting place in Ancient Greek cities. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be actively engaged in combat at a given time (rather than just those in the front rank). The war (or wars, since it is often divided into three periods) was for much of the time a stalemate, punctuated with occasional bouts of activity. The revolt was crushed by 494 BC, but Darius resolved to bring mainland Greece under his dominion. Ancient Greek military power. The remaining Athenian fleet was thereby forced to confront the Spartans, and were decisively defeated. Synaspismos (GR): locked shields formation. After the loss of Athenian ships and men in the Sicilian expedition, Sparta was able to foment rebellion amongst the Athenian league, which therefore massively reduced the ability of the Athenians to continue the war. Hippakontistès (GR): mounted javelinman. Persia switched sides, which ended the war, in return for the cities of Ionia and Spartan non-interference in Asia Minor. Greek training methods meant running long distances, using their body weight and ingenuity. Military structure and methods in ancient Greece, The rise of Macedon and the end of the hoplite era, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the end of the distinctive hoplite battle in Ancient Greece, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_warfare&oldid=995642132, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Epilektos (GR): picked soldier. Thucydides described hoplite warfare as othismos aspidon or "the push of shields". To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. Gymnès (GR): light-armed skirmisher. Fighting in the tight phalanx formation maximised the effectiveness of his armor, large shield and long spear, presenting a wall of armor and spearpoints to the enemy. Zygios (GR): middle level oarsman on a trireme. Anderson, J. K., Ancient Greek Horsemanship, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961. It scouted, screened, harassed, outflanked and pursued with the most telling moment being the use of Syracusan horse to harass and eventually destroy the retreating Athenian army of the disastrous Sicilian expedition 415-413 B.C. Keras (GR): wing. More Greek Architecture Greek Military This is a catapult, a Greek invention. Perikephalaios (GR): helmet. 167–200. This alliance thus removed the constraints on the type of armed forces that the Greeks could use. 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